• Performing the Small Animal Physical Examination offers an easy-to-follow guide to successfully executing a thorough physical exam in cats and dogs, with nearly 1,000 clinical photographs depicting step-by-step details.

    • Provides comprehensive, practical information on the physical examination in small animal patients
    • Presents nearly 1,000 color photographs with step-by-step details of the procedures and principles
    • Offers advice on preparing the examination room, useful tips, and concrete guidance for examining each body system
    • Outlines a systematic, in-depth approach to the initial examination in dogs and cats
    • Supports new and experienced veterinarians and veterinary technicians alike in performing a thorough basic exam
  • About the Author

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Part One Performing the Feline Physical Examination

    1 Setting the Stage: Feline-Friendly Practice

    1.1 Challenges Faced in Feline Practice

    1.2 The Emergence of Feline-Friendly Practice

    1.3 Key Principles of Feline-Friendly Practice

    1.4 The Role of Sound

    1.5 The Role of Tactile Stimulation

    1.6 The Role of Scent

    1.7 The Role of Advance Preparation

    1.8 Examination Room Etiquette: Accessing the Cat

    1.9 Recognizing Body Language

    1.10 Feline-Friendly Handling

    1.11 Other Feline Handling Tools

    2 Assessing the Big Picture: the Body, the Coat, and the Skin of the Cat

    2.1 Forms of Identification

    2.2 Body Condition Scoring

    2.3 Assessing Hydration

    2.4 Inspecting the Coat: First Impressions

    2.5 Identifying Coat Colors and Coat Patterns

    2.6 Assessing Coat Quality

    2.7 Inspecting the Skin

    3 Examining the Head of the Cat

    3.1 Skull Shape and Facial Symmetry

    3.2 The Eyes and Accessory Visual Structures

    3.3 The Ears

    3.4 The Nose

    3.5 The Extra-Oral Examination

    3.6 The Intra-Oral Examination

    4 Examining the Endocrine and Lymphatic Systems of the Cat

    4.1 Evaluating the Thyroid Gland

    4.2 Assessing the Lymphatic System

    5 Examining the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems of the Cat

    5.1 The Cardiac Patient

    5.2 Assessing the Cardiovascular System Prior to Auscultation

    5.3 Cardiothoracic Auscultation

    5.4 The Respiratory Patient

    5.5 Assessing the Respiratory System Prior to Auscultation

    5.6 Understanding Normal Airway Sounds

    5.7 Ausculting the Airway

    5.8 Understanding Adventitious Airway Sounds

    5.9 Using Airway Sounds to Corroborate Percussive Findings

    5.10 Purring as an Obstruction to Auscultation

    6 Examining the Abdominal Cavity of the Cat

    6.1 Overview of the Digestive Tract as It Pertains to Presenting Complaints

    6.2 The Esophagus

    6.3 Visual Inspection of the Abdomen

    6.4 Superficial Palpation of the Abdomen

    6.5 Deep Palpation of the Abdomen

    6.6 The Upper Urinary Tract

    6.7 The Lower Urinary Tract

    6.8 The Male Reproductive Tract

    6.9 The Female Reproductive Tract

    6.10 Being Presented with a Female of Unknown Sexual Status

    6.11 Neonates

    7 Examining the Musculoskeletal System of the Cat

    7.1 Muscle Condition Score (MCS)

    7.2 The Skeleton as a Whole

    7.3 The Appendicular Skeleton: The Forelimb

    7.4 The Appendicular Skeleton: The Hind Limb

    8 Evaluating the Nervous System of the Cat

    8.1 Assessing Behavior and Mental Status

    8.2 Assessing Posture

    8.3 Assessing Coordination and Gait

    8.4 Assessing Postural Reactions

    8.5 Assessing for Other Abnormal Movements

    8.6 Evaluating the Spinal Reflexes

    8.7 Assessing the Cranial Nerves

    8.8 Assessing Nociception

    Part Two Performing the Canine Physical Examination

    9 Setting the Stage: Canine-Friendly Practice and Low-Stress Handling

    9.1 Challenges Faced in Canine Practice

    9.2 The Concept of Low-Stress Handling

    9.3 White Coat Syndrome

    9.4 The Role of Scent

    9.5 The Role of Advance Preparation

    9.6 Examination Room Etiquette: Setting the Tone for Initial Veterinary Interactions with the Dog

    9.7 Recognizing Body Language

    9.8 Creative Approaches to Challenging Interactions with Canine Patients

    9.9 Other Canine Handling Tools

    10 Assessing the Big Picture: the Body, the Coat, and the Skin of the Dog

    10.1 Forms of Identification

    10.2 Body Condition Scoring

    10.3 Assessing Hydration

    10.4 Breed Designation

    10.5 Inspecting the Coat: First Impressions

    10.6 Identifying Coat Colors and Coat Patterns

    10.7 Assessing Coat Quality

    10.8 Inspecting the Skin

    10.9 Primary Skin Lesions

    10.10 Secondary Skin Lesions

    10.11 Miscellaneous Skin Lesions

    10.12 Hyperkeratosis

    10.13 Skin Folds

    10.14 Nails and Paw Pads

    10.15 Skin Incisions

    10.16 Mammary Glands

    11 Examining the Head of the Dog

    11.1 Skull Shape: Function Versus Cosmesis

    11.2 Facial symmetry

    11.3 The Eyes and Accessory Visual Structures

    11.4 The Ears

    11.5 The Nose

    11.6 The Extra-Oral Examination

    11.7 The Intra-Oral Examination

    12 Examining the Endocrine and Lymphatic Systems of the Dog

    12.1 Thyroid Gland Neoplasia in the Dog

    12.2 The Typical Presentation of Thyroid Gland Neoplasia in the Dog

    12.3 The Pathophysiology of Hypothyroidism

    12.4 The Typical Presentation of a Hypothyroid Dog

    12.5 The Atypical Presentation of a Hypothyroid Dog

    12.6 Assessing the Lymphatic System

    12.7 Examining the Submandibular Lymph Nodes

    12.8 Examining the Superficial Cervical or Pre-Scapular Lymph Nodes

    12.9 Examining the Popliteal Lymph Nodes

    12.10 Feeling for Lymph Nodes That Should Not Be Present

    13 Examining the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems of the Dog

    13.1 Congenital Heart Disease in the Dog

    13.2 Acquired Heart Disease in the Dog

    13.3 Assessing the Cardiovascular System Prior to Auscultation

    13.4 Cardiothoracic Auscultation

    13.5 The Respiratory Patient

    13.6 Assessing the Respiratory System Prior to Auscultation

    13.7 Understanding Normal Airway Sounds

    13.8 Ausculting the Airway

    13.9 Understanding Adventitious Airway Sounds

    13.10 Panting as an Obstruction to Auscultation

    14 Examining the Abdominal Cavity of the Dog

    14.1 Overview of the Digestive Tract

    14.2 The Esophagus

    14.3 Visual Inspection of the Abdomen

    14.4 Auscultion and Superficial Palpation of the Abdomen

    14.5 Deep Palpation of the Abdomen

    14.6 The Upper Urinary Tract

    14.7 The Lower Urinary Tract

    14.8 The Male Reproductive Tract

    14.9 The Female Reproductive Tract

    14.10 Being Presented with a Female of Unknown Sexual Status

    14.11 Neonates

    15 Examining the Musculoskeletal System of the Dog

    15.1 Muscle Condition Score (MCS)

    15.2 The Skeleton as a Whole

    15.3 The Appendicular Skeleton: The Forelimb

    15.4 The Appendicular Skeleton: The Hind Limb

    16 Evaluating the Nervous System of the Dog

    16.1 Assessing Behavior and Mental Status

    16.2 Assessing Posture

    16.3 Assessing Coordination and Gait

    16.4 Assessing Postural Reactions

    16.5 Assessing for Other Abnormal Movements

    16.6 Evaluating the Spinal Reflexes

    16.7 Assessing the Cranial Nerves

    16.8 Assessing Nociception

    Index

  • Ryane E. Englar, DVM, DABVP (Canine and Feline Practice), is Assistant Professor of Small Animal Primary Care at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine in Glendale, Arizona, USA.

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