• Veterinary Anesthetic and Monitoring Equipment is the first veterinary-specific resource solely dedicated to anesthetic and monitoring equipment used in clinical practice.

    • Offers a practical guide to anesthetic and monitoring equipment commonly used in veterinary medicine
    • Provides clinically oriented guidance to troubleshooting problems that may occur
    • Discusses general principles applicable to any equipment found in the practice
    • Presents information associated with novel anesthetic equipment and monitors
  • List of Contributors xvii

    Preface xxi

    1 Medical Gas Cylinders and Pipeline Systems 1
    Carl Bradbrook

    1.1 Medical Gas Cylinders 1

    1.2 Liquid Oxygen Tanks 8

    1.3 Oxygen Concentrators 9

    1.4 Medical Gas Pipeline Systems 9

    References 15

    2 Oxygen Concentrators 17
    Allan Williamson

    2.1 Introduction 17

    2.2 Function 17

    2.3 Product Gas 17

    2.4 Clinical Use 18

    2.5 Advantages 20

    2.6 Disadvantages 20

    2.7 Hazards 20

    2.8 Summary 21

    References 21

    3 Small Animal Anesthetic Machines and Equipment 23
    Craig Mosley and Amanda Shelby

    3.1 Introduction 23

    3.2 Safety and Design 23

    3.3 The Basic Veterinary Anesthetic Machine 23

    3.4 Breathing Systems 33

    3.5 Waste Gas Scavenge Systems 33

    3.6 Routine Anesthesia Machine Checkout Procedures 33

    References 34

    4 Large Animal Anesthesia Machines and Equipment 35
    Amanda Shelby

    4.1 History of the Large Animal Anesthesia Machine 35

    4.2 Purpose 35

    4.3 Standards 35

    4.4 Similarity to Small Animal Machines 35

    4.5 Components of the Anesthesia Machine 36

    4.6 Large Animal Anesthesia Workstations 41

    4.7 Common Commercially Available Machines 41

    4.8 General Cautions 51

    4.9 Miscellaneous Equipment for Large Animal Anesthesia 51

    References 53

    5 Anesthetic Vaporizers 55
    Sharon Fornes, Kristen G. Cooley, and Rebecca A. Johnson

    5.1 Introduction 55

    5.2 Vaporizer Physics 55

    5.3 Vaporizer Classification 56

    5.4 Other Factors Affecting Vaporizers 62

    5.5 Maintenance and Repair 64

    5.6 Current Vaporizer Standards 65

    5.7 The Modern Vaporizer 65

    5.8 Specific Vaporizers 66

    5.9 Summary 71

    References 71

    6 Anesthetic Ventilators 73
    Katrina Lafferty

    6.1 Introduction 73

    6.2 Ventilator Function in the Breathing Circuit 73

    6.3 Tidal Volume Delivery 73

    6.4 Driving Gas 74

    6.5 Bellows Construction 75

    6.6 Pressure Limiting Controls 76

    6.7 Gas Pressure Alarm 77

    6.8 Exhaust Valve 77

    6.9 Spill Valve 77

    6.10 Ventilator Hose Connection or Ventilator Hose Switch 77

    6.11 Ventilation Modes 78

    6.12 Cleaning and Sterilization 79

    6.13 Pressure Checking 79

    6.14 General Concerns and Troubleshooting 80

    6.15 Pediatric Ventilation 81

    6.16 Basic Ventilator‐Patient Set‐up 82

    6.17 Small Animal Mechanical Ventilators 82

    6.18 Large Animal Mechanical Ventilators 85

    6.19 Conclusion 89

    References 89

    7 Humidification and Positive Pressure Equipment 91
    Stephanie Keating and Stuart Clark‐Price

    7.1 Humidification 91

    7.2 Positive Pressure Equipment 96

    References 98

    8 Waste Anesthetic Gas Collection and Consequences 101
    Heidi Reuss‐Lamky

    8.1 Introduction 101

    8.2 Occupational WAG Exposure 101

    8.3 Physical Properties and Elimination 102

    8.4 Pharmacodynamics 102

    8.5 History of Governmental Regulations and Trace (Waste) Gas Exposure 104

    8.6 WAG Exposure Level Recommendations 104

    8.7 Reducing Environmental WAG Exposure 104

    8.8 The Anesthetist’s Responsibility 107

    8.9 Monitoring WAG Exposure 112

    8.10 Summary 112

    References 113

    9 Hazards of the Anesthetic Delivery System and Operating Room Fires 115
    Odette O

    9.1 Hazards of the Anesthetic Delivery System 115

    9.2 Operating Room Fires 123

    References 125

    10 Components of the Breathing System 127
    Craig Mosley and Amanda Shelby

    10.1 Breathing Systems 127

    10.2 Summary 139

    References 139

    11 Mapleson Breathing Systems 141
    Tatiana Ferreira

    11.1 Introduction 141

    11.2 Fresh Gas Flows (FGFs) 141

    11.3 Advantages and Disadvantages 141

    11.4 Choice of System 143

    11.5 Specific System Types 143

    11.6 Combined Systems 150

    11.7 Respiratory Gas Monitoring 150

    11.8 Potential Hazards 151

    References 152

    12 The Circle System 155
    Geoffrey Truchetti and Trish Anne Farry

    12.1 Introduction 155

    12.2 Components 155

    12.3 Component Arrangement 162

    12.4 Gas Flow 164

    12.5 Resistance and Work of Breathing in the Circle System 166

    12.6 Dead Space 166

    12.7 Heat and Moisture 167

    12.8 Maintenance 167

    12.9 Advantages/Disadvantages 168

    References 168

    13 Laryngoscopes 171
    Erin Wendt‐Hornickle

    13.1 History 171

    13.2 Laryngoscope Use 171

    13.3 Description 171

    13.4 Fiber Optic Endoscopes 174

    13.5 Veterinary‐Specific Laryngoscopes 175

    13.6 Summary 175

    References 176

    14 Supraglottic Airway Devices and Tracheal Tubes and Stylets 177
    Jennifer Sager

    14.1 Introduction 177

    14.2 Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) 177

    14.3 Veterinary‐gel (v‐gel®) Airway Device 178

    14.4 Endotracheal Tubes 179

    14.5 Large Animal Endotracheal Tubes 184

    14.6 Reinforced Tubes 185

    14.7 Laser Safe Tubes 185

    14.8 Single Lung Intubation 186

    14.9 Stylets 187

    14.10 Cuff Pressure Manometers 188

    14.11 Summary 190

    References 190

    15 Oxygen Delivery Systems 193
    Jonathan Bach

    15.1 Introduction 193

    15.2 Oxygen Supplementation Techniques 193

    15.3 Hyperbaric Oxygen 197

    References 197

    16 Gas Monitoring 199
    Louise O’Dwyer

    16.1 Introduction 199

    16.2 Capnometry/Capnography 199

    16.3 Oxygen Measurement 207

    16.4 Nitrous Oxide and Inhalation Agent Analyzers 208

    16.5 Blood Gas Analysis: Partial Pressures of Oxygen and CO2 210

    16.6 Conclusion 210

    References 210

    17 Airway Volumes, Flows and Pressures 213
    Andrew Claude and Alanna Johnson

    17.1 Introduction 213

    17.2 Definitions 213

    17.3 Volume and Flow Measurement Devices 214

    17.4 The Ventilatory (Respiratory) Cycle 218

    17.5 Airway Pressure Monitoring 219

    17.6 Spirometry Loops 219

    References 222

    18 Pulse Oximetry 223
    Odette O

    18.1 Introduction 223

    18.2 History 223

    18.3 Importance of Pulse Oximetry 223

    18.4 Function 224

    18.5 Pulse Oximeter Probes 224

    18.6 Uses 225

    18.7 Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curves in Different Species 225

    18.8 Patient Factors 226

    18.9 Abnormal Hemoglobin 227

    18.10 Sources of Error 227

    18.11 Perfusion Index (PI) and Plethysmograph Variability Index (PVI) 228

    18.12 Other Pulse Oximeter Models 229

    18.13 Low Saturation Alarms 231

    18.14 Pulse Oximetry Use in the Recovery Period 231

    18.15 Summary 231

    References 232

    19 Cardiovascular Monitoring 235
    Anderson Favaro da Cunha and Rebecca A. Johnson

    19.1 Introduction 235

    19.2 Definitions 235

    19.3 Measurement Techniques 235

    19.4 Patient Point of View 244

    19.5 Central Venous Pressure (CVP) 245

    19.6 Cardiac Output Monitoring 246

    19.7 Conclusion 248

    References 248

    20 Electrocardiography 253
    Tracey Lawrence

    20.1 Overview 253

    20.2 The ECG Machine 253

    20.3 Lead Systems 254

    20.4 Mean Electrical Axis (MEA) 257

    20.5 ECG Cycle 258

    20.6 Electrode Placement 260

    20.7 ECG Filters 263

    20.8 Evaluating the ECG 264

    20.9 Equipment Maintenance 268

    20.10 Summary 268

    References 269

    21 Neuromuscular Transmission Monitoring 271
    Molly Allen and Rebecca A. Johnson

    21.1 Introduction 271

    21.2 Neuromuscular Transmission 271

    21.3 Peripheral Nerve Stimulation 271

    21.4 Monitoring Techniques 275

    21.5 Other Equipment 279

    References 280

    22 Temperature Regulation and Monitoring 285
    Caroline Baldo and Darci Palmer

    22.1 Introduction 285

    22.2 Heat and Thermodynamics 285

    22.3 Thermoregulation 285

    22.4 Types of Heat Loss 286

    22.5 Heat Loss During Anesthesia 287

    22.6 Effects of Hypothermia and Hyperthermia 288

    22.7 Re‐Warming 289

    22.8 Temperature Monitoring Devices 290

    22.9 Sites of Temperature Monitoring 291

    22.10 Warming Devices 293

    22.11 Active Warming Devices 293

    22.12 Other Techniques to Minimize Heat Loss 298

    22.13 High‐Risk Heating Methods 299

    References 300

    23 Fluid Regulation and Monitoring 303
    Julie Walker

    23.1 Overview of Fluid Physiology 303

    23.2 Assessment of Fluid Balance 304

    23.3 Advanced Fluid Balance Monitoring Techniques 307

    23.4 Fluid Therapy 311

    23.5 Equipment for Fluid Therapy 312

    23.6 Summary 319

    References 319

    24 Anesthetic Records 323
    Thomas Riebold

    24.1 Introduction 323

    24.2 Maintaining Anesthetic Records 323

    24.3 Monitoring Recommendations 323

    24.4 Paper Anesthetic Records 324

    24.5 Electronic Anesthetic Records 324

    24.6 Transitioning from Paper to Electronic Medical Records 327

    24.7 Specific Types of Anesthetic Monitoring Software 328

    24.8 Patient Management and Digital Records 330

    24.9 Automated Dispensing Systems and Record Keeping 333

    References 333

    25 Equipment for the Magnetic Resonance Imaging System 335
    Kris Kruse‐Elliott

    25.1 Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 335

    25.2 Regulations 337

    25.3 MRI Hazard Classification 337

    25.4 Types of Metal 338

    25.5 Gauss Lines and Safety Zones 338

    25.6 Specific Hazards 339

    25.7 Compatible MRI Equipment 340

    25.8 Anesthetic Machines 340

    25.9 Vaporizers 341

    25.10 Ventilators 342

    25.11 Laryngoscopes 342

    25.12 Endotracheal Tubes and Airway Devices 342

    25.13 Monitors 342

    25.14 Miscellaneous Items 345

    25.15 Summary 346

    References 346

    26 Equipment for Environmental Extremes and Field Techniques 349
    David Brunson and Kristen G. Cooley

    26.1 Environmental Extremes 349

    26.2 Temperature 349

    26.3 Atmospheric Pressure 351

    26.4 Drug Delivery Systems 352

    26.5 Monitoring Equipment 356

    26.6 Field Techniques 358

    26.7 Anesthesia for Situations with Limited Means 358

    26.8 Stress 362

    26.9 Summary 363

    References 363

    27 Equipment Checkout and Maintenance 365
    Molly Allen and Lesley Smith

    27.1 Introduction 365

    27.2 Daily Checks 365

    27.3 Other Equipment 373

    27.4 End of Case 373

    27.5 Preventative Maintenance 374

    References 374

    28 Equipment Cleaning and Sterilization 377
    Cristina de Miguel Garcia and Kristen G. Cooley

    28.1 Introduction 377

    28.2 The Decontamination Process 378

    28.3 Recommendations for Cleaning and Disinfecting Specific Items 384

    References 388

    29 Unique Species Considerations: Dogs and Cats 391
    Turi Aarnes

    29.1 Introduction 391

    29.2 Intubation 391

    29.3 Breathing System 392

    29.4 Monitoring 392

    29.3 Recovery 393

    29.6 Anesthetic Risk 393

    References 394

    30 Unique Species Considerations: Ruminants and Swine 395
    Denise Radkey, Lindsey Snyder, and Rebecca A. Johnson

    Part I: Ruminants 395

    30.1 Introduction 395

    30.2 Handling and Restraint 395

    30.3 IV Catheterization 396

    30.4 Induction Equipment 397

    30.5 Tracheal Insufflation and Demand Valves 403

    30.6 Padding and Positioning 404

    30.7 Monitoring Equipment 406

    30.8 Commercial Anesthetic Machines 408

    30.9 Anesthetic Circuit 408

    30.10 Anesthetic Recovery 409

    30.11 Summary 410

    Part II: Swine 410

    30.12 Introduction 410

    30.13 Handling and Restraint 410

    30.14 Intravenous Catheter Placement 411

    30.15 Induction Equipment 412

    30.16 Monitoring Equipment 414

    30.17 Anesthetic Circuit 415

    30.18 Anesthetic Recovery 416

    30.19 Summary 416

    References 416

    31 Unique Species Considerations: Equine 419
    Carolyn Kerr

    31.1 Introduction 419

    31.2 Sedation and Pre‐Anesthetic Period Considerations 419

    31.3 General Anesthesia 426

    31.4 Recovery Period 437

    31.5 Medical Records 437

    References 438

    32 Unique Species Considerations: Avian 441
    Carrie Schroeder

    32.1 Introduction 441

    32.2 Anesthetic Considerations 443

    32.3 Venous Access 445

    32.4 Anesthetic Monitors 446

    32.5 Anesthetic Circuits 447

    32.6 Maintenance of Body Temperature 448

    32.7 Anesthetic Recovery 448

    References 449

    33 Unique Species Considerations: Rabbits 451
    Katrina Lafferty

    33.1 Introduction 451

    33.2 Intubation 451

    33.3 Breathing Circuits 454

    33.4 Monitors 454

    33.5 Thermal Support 458

    33.6 Summary 458

    References 458

    34 Unique Species Considerations: Rodents 461
    Mario Arenillas Baquero and Rebecca A. Johnson

    34.1 Introduction 461

    34.2 Anesthetic Machines 461

    34.3 Anesthetic Induction Chambers 462

    34.4 Masks 464

    34.5 Endotracheal Intubation and Intubation Devices 466

    34.6 Ventilators 469

    34.7 Monitoring Equipment 469

    34.8 Warming Devices 473

    34.9 Summary 474

    References 474

    35 Unique Species Considerations: Fish and Amphibians 477
    Kurt Sladky

    35.1 Introduction 477

    35.2 Fish and Amphibian Anesthesia: Induction and Maintenance 477

    35.3 Anesthetic Monitoring 483

    References 486

    36 Unique Species Considerations: Reptiles 489
    Christoph Mans

    36.1 Introduction 489

    36.2 Anesthetic Induction 489

    36.3 Airway Intubation 489

    36.4 Anesthetic Monitoring 491

    36.5 Summary 495

    References 495

    37 Unique Species Considerations: Non‐Human Primates 497
    Stephen Cital

    37.1 General Anatomy 497

    37.2 Taxonomy 497

    37.3 Immobilizing Equipment 497

    37.4 Anesthetic Machines 497

    37.5 Monitors 498

    37.6 Summary 501

    References 502

    Index 503

  • Kristen G. Cooley, BA, CVT, VTS (Anesthesia/Analgesia), is an Instructional Specialist in the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

    Rebecca A. Johnson, DVM, PhD, DACVAA, is a Clinical Associate Professor of Anesthesia and Pain Management in the Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

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