Medicina Forense

Veterinary Forensics: Animal Cruelty Investigations, 2nd Edition

De: Melinda Merck (Editor)
ISBN: 9780470961629
2012, Wiley
Capa mole
Páginas: 424

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  • Veterinary Forensics, Second Edition is a practical reference on applying veterinary forensic findings in animal cruelty cases. Now providing a greater focus on findings in animals, the second edition continues to offer guidance with more detailed information on crime scene investigation, forensic testing and findings, handling evidence, and testifying in court. Key changes to the new edition include new chapters on abuse in large animals, poultry, and birds; a standalone chapter on entomology; a new section on large scale cruelty investigation; an expanded section on pain and suffering; more pathology information; and more photos, forms, and information throughout.

    Logs and workbooks from the book are available on a companion website at www.wiley.com/go/vetforensics, allowing readers to download, customize, and use these forms in forensics investigations. Veterinary Forensics is an essential resource for veterinarians, pathologists, attorneys, and investigators working on animal abuse cases.

  • List of Contributors xiii

    Foreword xv

    Preface xvii

    Acknowledgments xix

    1 The Legal System: The Veterinarian’s Role and Responsibilities 1

    Introduction 1

    Defining Animal Cruelty 1

    Governing Laws 2

    How Veterinarians Become Involved 2

    Search and Seizure 7

    Handling the Media in Animal Cruelty Cases 7

    Confidentiality 7

    Filing Criminal Charges and Hearings 8

    Non-Criminal Cases 10

    Trial 11

    Compensation for the Veterinarian 15

    Conclusion 16

    2 Crime Scene Investigation 17

    Introduction 17

    The Veterinarian’s Role and Handling of Animals at the Crime Scene 18

    General Considerations for Crime Scene Processing 19

    Environment: Weather Data 19

    Photography and Videography 20

    Evidence Recognition and Documentation 21

    Evidence Collection and Packaging 23

    Exclusionary Biological Testing 24

    Blood Evidence 25

    Burial Scenes: Grave Detection, Mapping, and Excavation 29

    3 CSI: Examination of the Animal 37

    General Considerations 37

    Determining Non-Accidental Injury 38

    Behavioral Considerations of Animals 41

    Evidence Documentation, Collection, and Packaging 41

    Chain of Custody 41

    Photography and Videography 42

    Examination and Documentation of the Live Animal 43

    External Examination 43

    Forensic Necropsy 47

    Special Considerations 58

    The Forensic Report 62

    4 Special Considerations in Animal Cruelty Cases 69

    Large Scale Cruelty Cases 69

    Trace Evidence 77

    Forensic Botany 79

    DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid 81

    Animal Death/Injury in Human Suspicious Death/Injury Cases 83

    Other Unique Identifiers of Animals 84

    Münchausen Syndrome by Proxy 84

    Suffering 86

    Pain 90

    Suggested Reading on Pain in Animals 95

    5 Blunt Force Trauma 97

    Overview 97

    Bruising/Contusions 98

    Abrasions 101

    Lacerations 103

    Ligature Injuries 103

    Avulsion Injuries 104

    Fractures 105

    Motor Vehicle Accident (MVA) Injuries 106

    Fall Injuries 107

    Swinging/Dragging Injuries 108

    Grooming-Associated Injuries 108

    Blunt Force Injuries to Specific Body Regions 109

    6 Sharp Force Injuries 123

    General Considerations 123

    Stab Wounds 124

    Incised-Stab Wounds 128

    Incised Wounds 128

    Chop Wounds 129

    Mutilations, Predator Attacks, and Dog Attacks 130

    Ritualistic Crimes 134

    7 Burn-, Electrical-, and Fire-Related Injuries 139

    Interpreting Burn Patterns 139

    Recognition and Collection of Evidence 139

    Burn Classification 140

    Systemic Effects of Burns 141

    General Microscopic Examination Findings in Burns 141

    Thermal Burns 141

    Chemical Burns 144

    Electrical Burns 145

    Fire-Related Injuries 146

    8 Firearm Injuries 151

    Introduction 151

    Overview of Firearms 151

    Wound Ballistics 154

    Determining Entrance and Exit Wounds 155

    Determining Gunshot Range 158

    Examination of Gunshot Victims 165

    9 Asphyxia 169

    Overview of Asphyxia 169

    General Findings in Asphyxia 169

    Suffocation 170

    Strangulation 172

    Mechanical Asphyxia 178

    Drowning 178

    10 Poisoning 185

    Overview of Intentional Poisonings 185

    Evidence and History 186

    Diagnostics 188

    Agents Used in Animal Poisonings 190

    Summary 204

    11 Neglect 207

    Introduction 207

    Environment Examination 208

    Malnutrition: Improper Feeding 209

    Malnutrition: Starvation 210

    Animal Hoarders and Animal Sanctuaries 219

    Puppy Mills 222

    Heat Stroke 223

    Hypothermia 226

    Embedded Collars 230

    Demodicosis 230

    Untreated Injuries 230

    12 Sexual Abuse 233

    Overview 233

    Considerations for Crime Scene Investigation 234

    Assessment of Videos 235

    General Examination Findings 235

    Examination Procedures 236

    Suspicious Examination Findings 238

    Zoonotic Disease 238

    Evaluation and Differentiation of Human and Canine Sperm and Semen 239

    13 Animal Fighting 243

    Overview of Dog Fighting 243

    The Fighting Dog 243

    Fighting Classifications 245

    The Fight and The Dog Fighting Pit 245

    Training and Fighting Paraphernalia 246

    Canine CODIS: Fighting Dog Combined DNA Index System 247

    Examination of the Animal 247

    Cockfighting 250

    Other Types of Animal Fighting 252

    14 Postmortem Changes and the Postmortem Interval 255

    Overview 255

    Examination of the Body 255

    Determining the PMI: Examination of the Crime Scene 269

    15 Forensic Entomology: The Use of Insects in Animal Cruelty Cases 273

    Introduction 273

    Principles of Medicolegal Entomology 274

    Cutaneous Myiasis: The Insect Colonization of Live Animals 276

    Other Uses for Insects in Animal Cruelty Investigations 278

    Collection of Insect Evidence 279

    Summary 284

    16 Large Animal Cruelty 287

    Introduction 287

    Assessing Pain and Suffering 287

    Investigation of Cruelty 288

    Starvation 289

    Body Condition Scoring 290

    Evaluation of Water 291

    Hoof Care 291

    Dental Care 294

    Shelter 296

    Accidental and Non-Accidental Injuries 297

    17 Avian Cruelty 299

    Pet Bird Cruelty 299

    Avian Abuse Defined 299

    Intentional Abuse 300

    Unintentional Abuse 301

    Veterinary Abuse 302

    Poultry Cruelty 303

    General Exam Findings in Pet Bird and Poultry Cruelty 307

    Appendices 311

    1. Colorado Veterinary Medical Association Protocol for Mandatory Reporting of Animal Cruelty and Animal Fighting 311

    2. Case Status Form 318

    3. Evidence Log/Chain of Custody Form 319

    4. Photo Log 321

    5. Animal Cruelty Forensic Supplies 322

    6. Clandestine Burial Crime Scene Checklist 324

    7. Veterinarian Crime Scene Checklist 326

    8. Deceased Animal Intake Questionnaire 327

    9. Live Animal Intake Questionnaire 328

    10. Live Exam Form 329

    11. Necropsy Exam Form 330

    12. Fixed Tissue List for Histopathology 333

    13. Canine Body Condition Score for 1–9 and 1–5 Scales 334

    14. Feline Body Condition Score for 1–9 and 1–5 Scales 335

    15. Dog Diagram: Condition of Skin, Haircoat, and Nails Form 336

    16. Cat Diagram: Condition of Skin, Haircoat, and Nails Form 338

    17. Cat Skeleton Lesions Form 340

    18. Dog Skeleton Lesions Form 341

    19. Cat and Dog Skeletal Inventory Form 342

    20. Live Exam Report Template 344

    21. Necropsy Report Template 345

    22. Forensic Medical Protocol for Large Scale Cases 348

    23. Large Scale Medical Supply List 352

    24. Large Scale Live Animal Exam Form 356

    25. Rapid Bird Exam Form 358

    26. Botany Field Report 359

    27. Dog Bite Investigation Worksheet 360

    28. Basic Small Pet Bird Care in Temporary Shelters 366

    29. Tuft’s Animal Care and Condition Scale for Dogs 368

    30. Tufts Animal Care and Condition Scale for the Environment 370

    31. Dogfighting Terminology 372

    32. Cajun Rules for Dogfighting 374

    33. Dogfighting Scar and Injury Chart 376

    34. Cockfighting Scar and Injury Chart 377

    35. Examples of Vitamins, Drugs, and Medical Supplies Used in Dogfighting 378

    36. Entomology Form for Animal Cases 380

    37. Webliography 383

    Index 387

    Companion Website

    The book is accompanied by a companion website, accessible at www.wiley.com/go/vetforensics

    The website includes forms and checklists to download and use in forensics investigations.

  • Melinda Merck, DVM, is owner of Veterinary Forensics Consulting, LLC in Atlanta, Georgia.

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